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Title The WTO and the environment : development of competence beyond trade / James K.R. Watson.

Author Watson, James K. R.
Publisher Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon ; New York : Routledge, [2013]
©2013
Table of Contents
 Acknowledgementsix
 Forewordx
 Table of Casesxiii
 Table of GATT Agreements, WTO Agreements and Other International Treatiesxix
 Table of Abbreviationsxxi
 Introduction1
1.The development of a judicialised international trade dispute resolution system at the World Trade Organisation11
1.1.Introduction11
1.2.Definition of judicialisation12
1.2.1.Quasi-judicial?13
1.2.2.International Law dispute resolution models15
1.2.3.Tomuschat taxonomy of an international judicial body16
1.3.Background to the GATT dispute resolution procedures17
1.4.The development of the GATT/WTO dispute settlement procedures18
1.5.The central tenet of the GATT system20
1.6.Practical implementation of the GATT dispute settlement process21
1.7.Understanding regarding notification, consultation, dispute settlement and surveillance21
1.8.Drawbacks of the GATT dispute settlement process23
1.9.The WTO and the Dispute Settlement Understanding26
1.9.1.The Dispute Settlement Body26
1.9.2.The panel27
1.9.3.The Appellate Body28
1.9.4.Negative consensus29
1.9.5.Enforcement29
1.10.Judicialised dispute resolution at the WTO31
1.11.An arbitration or judicial system at the WTO?34
1.12.Effectiveness of the WTO DSU36
1.13.A study of the effectiveness of the WTO DSU40
1.14.Conclusion41
2.The WTO dispute resolution mechanism in comparison to other international regimes43
2.1.The context of the WTO DSU in international dispute resolution organisations43
2.2.The WTO DSU in the context of the International Court of Justice43
2.3.The WTO DSU in the context of the European Court of Justice46
2.4.The WTO DSU, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa49
2.4.1.The 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement51
2.4.2.The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa Court of Justice54
2.5.The WTO DSU in the context of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species and the Convention on Biological Diversity56
2.5.1.The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species57
2.5.2.The Convention on Biological Diversity60
2.6.Conclusion61
3.The role of previous decisions in the WTO DSU and their impact on member state behaviour63
3.1.Introduction63
3.2.International law and reliance on dispute resolution decisions65
3.3.Judicial decision making in the jurisprudence of the ICJ68
3.4.Stare decisis and the International Court of Justice71
3.5.Distinguishing a case at the International Court of Justice75
3.6.Departing from a previous decision at the International Court of Justice77
3.7.Summary of precedent in international law and the International Court of Justice83
3.8.Precedent under the GATT 194784
3.9.The judicialised WTO dispute resolution system and the role of precedent88
3.10.Arguments against the existence of precedent in the WTO92
3.11.Conclusion93
4.Trade and environment in the international legal order95
4.1.Introduction95
4.2.Context of trade and environment in the international law arena96
4.3.Free market economics and the environment98
4.4.The environmental view of the trade-environment debate104
4.5.The environmental law context113
4.5.1.The Convention on Biological Diversity114
4.5.2.The Kyoto Protocol on climate change117
4.5.3.The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (CPB)121
4.6.Conclusion126
5.The DSB and MEAs129
5.1.Introduction129
5.2.Choosing a forum for dispute settlement132
5.3.Dispute resolution mechanisms of Multilateral Environmental Agreements136
5.3.1.CITES136
5.3.2.The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer138
5.3.3.The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposals141
5.4.The Doha agenda and the MEA/WTO relationship144
5.5.Commentaries on the WTO and its interaction with MEAs148
5.6.Conclusion151
6.Environment under the WTO and the CTE153
6.1.Introduction153
6.2.The environment under the WTO154
6.2.1.The historical context156
6.3.The WTO CTE terms of reference160
6.3.1.The ten areas of work of the CTE162
6.4.The Doha Development Agenda and the work of the Committee on Trade and Environment164
6.5.Other areas of work of the CTE170
6.5.1.TRIPS and the Committee on Trade and the Environment171
6.5.2.Environmental labelling and the CTE173
6.5.3.CTE work in relation to Article XX GATT175
6.6.Impact of the CTE on the trade and environment debate176
6.7.Conclusion179
7.Application of Article XX in the trade-environment context181
7.1.Introduction181
7.2.Treaty rules of relevance to the trade-environment debate182
7.2.1.The environment in other WTO agreements184
7.2.2.The precautionary principle in the WTO agreements191
7.3.Article XX and Hike' products192
7.4.The operation of the dispute resolution system and environmental measures194
7.4.1.The role of the panel in trade-environment dispute resolution196
7.5.The interpretation of Article XX (g) through the DSU process198
7.6.The interpretation of Article XX (b) through the DSU process201
7.7.The chapeau of Article XX: tests for compliance205
7.7.1.Tests to determine compliance of a measure with the WTO under the chapeau of Article XX207
7.7.2.Environmental criticisms of the chapeau of Article XX tests217
7.8.Conclusion219
 Conclusion221
 Index231
Location Call number Status
 Biddle  K3585 .W38 2013    Available
Phys Desc xxii, 236 pages ; 24 cm.
text txt rdacontent
unmediated n rdamedia
volume nc rdacarrier
Series Routledge research in international economic law
Routledge research in international economic law.
Notes Includes bibliographical references and index
Reprint Acknowledgements ix
Foreword x
Table of Cases xiii
Table of GATT Agreements, WTO Agreements and Other International Treaties xix
Table of Abbreviations xxi
Introduction 1
1. The development of a judicialised international trade dispute resolution system at the World Trade Organisation 11
1.1. Introduction 11
1.2. Definition of judicialisation 12
1.2.1. Quasi-judicial? 13
1.2.2. International Law dispute resolution models 15
1.2.3. Tomuschat taxonomy of an international judicial body 16
1.3. Background to the GATT dispute resolution procedures 17
1.4. The development of the GATT/WTO dispute settlement procedures 18
1.5. The central tenet of the GATT system 20
1.6. Practical implementation of the GATT dispute settlement process 21
1.7. Understanding regarding notification, consultation, dispute settlement and surveillance 21
1.8. Drawbacks of the GATT dispute settlement process 23
1.9. The WTO and the Dispute Settlement Understanding 26
1.9.1. The Dispute Settlement Body 26
1.9.2. The panel 27
1.9.3. The Appellate Body 28
1.9.4. Negative consensus 29
1.9.5. Enforcement 29
1.10. Judicialised dispute resolution at the WTO 31
1.11. An arbitration or judicial system at the WTO? 34
1.12. Effectiveness of the WTO DSU 36
1.13. A study of the effectiveness of the WTO DSU 40
1.14. Conclusion 41
2. The WTO dispute resolution mechanism in comparison to other international regimes 43
2.1. The context of the WTO DSU in international dispute resolution organisations 43
2.2. The WTO DSU in the context of the International Court of Justice 43
2.3. The WTO DSU in the context of the European Court of Justice 46
2.4. The WTO DSU, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa 49
2.4.1. The 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement 51
2.4.2. The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa Court of Justice 54
2.5. The WTO DSU in the context of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species and the Convention on Biological Diversity 56
2.5.1. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species 57
2.5.2. The Convention on Biological Diversity 60
2.6. Conclusion 61
3. The role of previous decisions in the WTO DSU and their impact on member state behaviour 63
3.1. Introduction 63
3.2. International law and reliance on dispute resolution decisions 65
3.3. Judicial decision making in the jurisprudence of the ICJ 68
3.4. Stare decisis and the International Court of Justice 71
3.5. Distinguishing a case at the International Court of Justice 75
3.6. Departing from a previous decision at the International Court of Justice 77
3.7. Summary of precedent in international law and the International Court of Justice 83
3.8. Precedent under the GATT 1947 84
3.9. The judicialised WTO dispute resolution system and the role of precedent 88
3.10. Arguments against the existence of precedent in the WTO 92
3.11. Conclusion 93
4. Trade and environment in the international legal order 95
4.1. Introduction 95
4.2. Context of trade and environment in the international law arena 96
4.3. Free market economics and the environment 98
4.4. The environmental view of the trade-environment debate 104
4.5. The environmental law context 113
4.5.1. The Convention on Biological Diversity 114
4.5.2. The Kyoto Protocol on climate change 117
4.5.3. The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (CPB) 121
4.6. Conclusion 126
5. The DSB and MEAs 129
5.1. Introduction 129
5.2. Choosing a forum for dispute settlement 132
5.3. Dispute resolution mechanisms of Multilateral Environmental Agreements 136
5.3.1. CITES 136
5.3.2. The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer 138
5.3.3. The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposals 141
5.4. The Doha agenda and the MEA/WTO relationship 144
5.5. Commentaries on the WTO and its interaction with MEAs 148
5.6. Conclusion 151
6. Environment under the WTO and the CTE 153
6.1. Introduction 153
6.2. The environment under the WTO 154
6.2.1. The historical context 156
6.3. The WTO CTE terms of reference 160
6.3.1. The ten areas of work of the CTE 162
6.4. The Doha Development Agenda and the work of the Committee on Trade and Environment 164
6.5. Other areas of work of the CTE 170
6.5.1. TRIPS and the Committee on Trade and the Environment 171
6.5.2. Environmental labelling and the CTE 173
6.5.3. CTE work in relation to Article XX GATT 175
6.6. Impact of the CTE on the trade and environment debate 176
6.7. Conclusion 179
7. Application of Article XX in the trade-environment context 181
7.1. Introduction 181
7.2. Treaty rules of relevance to the trade-environment debate 182
7.2.1. The environment in other WTO agreements 184
7.2.2. The precautionary principle in the WTO agreements 191
7.3. Article XX and Hike' products 192
7.4. The operation of the dispute resolution system and environmental measures 194
7.4.1. The role of the panel in trade-environment dispute resolution 196
7.5. The interpretation of Article XX (g) through the DSU process 198
7.6. The interpretation of Article XX (b) through the DSU process 201
7.7. The chapeau of Article XX: tests for compliance 205
7.7.1. Tests to determine compliance of a measure with the WTO under the chapeau of Article XX 207
7.7.2. Environmental criticisms of the chapeau of Article XX tests 217
7.8. Conclusion 219
Conclusion 221
Index 231
20121105
Subject Environmental law, International.
World Trade Organization -- Rules and practice.
Foreign trade regulation.
Arbitration (International law)
Environmental policy -- International cooperation.
Alt Title World Trade Organization and the environment
World Trade Organisation and the environment
Alt Series 2012011729
ISBN 9780415527125 (hbk)
0415527120 (hbk)
9780203095522 (ebk)
0203095529 (ebk)